Addtives - M
Margarine - vegetable oils hydrogenated
to make them solid. This process convert oils into saturated fats. Sometimes
milk or fish oils such cetyl palmitate or spermaceti (derived from whales
and dolphins) may be used. During processing, the oils are also degummed,
bleached, hydrogenated, deodorised and combined with salt, colour preservatives,
flavour, emulsifiers and vitamins.
Marine Oil - fish oil, also used
in margarine and soap.
Magnesium carbonate - see Talcum
Powder The typical accomodation of a calf farmed for veal. It spends the entire
of its short life in these abysmal conditions.
Meat production - It
has been estimated that the amount of grain used to fatten one cow for
meat could feed up to 16 people for the same period of time.
In the US cattle consume
90% of the soybean crop, 80% of all corn grown and yet 20 million people
will die from starvation this year. (The US department of Agriculture
and Oxfam America statistics)16.
Not only do cattle consume
half the worlds grain crops, but meat farming contributes significantly
to soil erosion, desertification and deforestation especially of rainforests,
global warming through the use of fossil fuels in transport, slaughter,
processing and storage, and 20% of the total production of methane.
Meat farming contributes to pollution of water ways with manure and
pesticides in amounts greater than the pollution of cities and industry
combined. (Cross and Byers, etal 1990)16.
In Australia clearing for pasture is the
foremost reason for clearing, and as resulted in the state of Queensland
having the highest rate of land clearing in the western world, killing
many animals and trees, putting our Great Barrier Reef in danger from
runoff, increasing the already likely incidence of salinity and contributing
to greenhouse gas emissions. For more on the ethics of land
clearing and meat-eating see links: ecophilsophy.
Meat production involves
much suffering and degradation of the animals at all stages. Animals
are branded with hot irons, sheep are 'mulsed' (a brutal process which
involves cutting away the flesh at either side of the anus), dipped
or sprayed with toxic chemicals, whipped and nipped by dogs, packed
tightly into trucks or ships for transport where they are often dehydrated
and may die in transit. At the slaughterhouse animals may be strung
up by their feet alive and unstunned, as is the practice for "Halal"
slaughter, their killing may be botched, so that the animal is not yet
dead when it is bled and dismembering begins. The whole process is brutal,
immoral even, resulting in much avoidable torment and waste of life
and resources. 16, 39, 50, 60
Meat substitutes - see TVP
Melaleuca oil - see tea-tree
Mercury - Exposure to
high levels of Mercury is proven to cause serious foetal abnormalities.
Mercury may be present in canned fish, especially Tuna fish, who are contaminated
by factory effluent. Some weedkillers and fungicides contain mercury,
so take care handling seeds dusted in fungicides. In Iraq 6000 people
were hospitalised and 500 died as a consequence of eating bread made from
flour made from grain treated with a mercurial fungicide. Dental amalgam
contains mercury. Garlic has been found to help prevent Mercury been absorbed
by the body. Phenylmercuric salts are used as a preervative in some eye
medications and cosmetics. See also
toxicity, fish, phenylmercuric salts 34, 47
Microwave ovens - The CSIRO report
that "food cooked in microwave ovens does not represent a radiation
risk", however radiation leakage can occur during cooking if the oven
door is faulty. A more significant problem with microwaves is the tendency
of some additives found in plastics "particularly those which make it
pliable, (to) migrate into food." Soft plastic containers designed for
storing frozen or refrigerated items should be avoided. 10
Milk - like meat production,
the animals concerned are often treated as commodities, fed hormones and
doused in pesticides. In order for a cow's milk to be taken for human
consumption, its young must suffer, first being taken from thier mother
prematurely, often to be raised for veal - grain fed in small pens for
the remainder of thier lives.14, 64
dairy cows from the United States are said to live under factory
conditions. Cattle are forced to eat saw dust, ammonia, feathers,
toxic ink, processed sewage, poultry litter, grease, and plastic
hay. The female claves born to dairy cows are bred for milk production
and the male calves are immediately processed for veal. The calves
raised for veal are confined to small, dark, damp cells where they
are fed only iron-deficient gruel that they will become anemic and
that their flesh will become tender. Small calves may be chained
by their necks for months at a time while milking machines are wheeled
to them. The life expectancy of cattle raised for milk production
is usually decreased by 15 years in factory farms. These cows are
always pregnant and give three or more times the milk they would
natually give. Hormones are injected into the cows causing their
udders to swell and drag on the ground getting cut, bruised, and
Milk products are often
mixed with additives , including peroxide and gelatine, milk is sometimes
fortified with Vitamin D derived from fish oils.
Hormones and antibiotics
are often present in dairy products because of these drugs are used
on most farms. Genetically engineered Bovine-Growth Hormone, is
supposed to increase milk production when injected into dairy cows.
BGH is manufactured by the Monsanto Corp., was approved by the FDA
despite potential human health problems associated with consuming
milk from BGH cows: " the drug was approved without one single test
examining its impact on humans ingesting products from animals treated
with it." (Ronnie Cummins, national director of the Pure Food Campaign,
a consumer advocacy group in the US). 45
- soy drink is an excellent milk substitute. Coffee whitening powders
usually contain hydrogenated palm oil, corn syrup and sodium caseinate
-the latter is derived from milk.
Mink oil - derived
from dead minks left over form fur production, used in shampoos, conditioners
and skin creams 14,78
Mineral oil -
often called 'baby oil', or white mineral oil and found in many cosmetics,
mineral oils is petroleum derived liquid paraffin. Paraffin is not
easily absorbed by the skin. 12, 47
- increase moisture retention, modify flavours. Mineral oil is sometimes
used to polish apples and cucumbers, and liver abnormalities have
been attributed to ingestion this way. 47
Moisturisers and facial
creams - Many commercial moisturisers are made with animals fats,
including stearates derived from beef fat, and lanolin. The more expensive
brands often sport excessive packaging and sell by exploiting women's
There are simple and
cheap alternatives to hand, face and body moisturisers: sorbolene
is inexpensive and available at chemists and supermarkets. Health
food stores often sell unperfumed bases in bulk containers.
Home remedies are also
effective: Lemon juice restores the skins acid mantle. Almond oil
is an excellent moisturiser and suitable for use on baby's skin.
Acne scrubs can be made from colloidal oatmeal and almond meal mixed
2:1 and added to soap when cleansing. Other facial scrubs can contain
alfalfa, corn meal and/or carrot juice for acne, grated apple and
almond oil for rough skin, cucumber and oatmeal for oily skins,
or apple cider vinegar. Raw cucumber rubbed on the face helps reduce
oiliness and is astringent and is soothing on sunburnt skin. 14,
33 see also cosmetics, shampoo, draize test, LD50.
- Manufactured by the fermentation of molasses from sugar, MSG is
the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Its strong salt flavour is used
to increase the palatability of protein rich foods. Used in packet
soups, noodles and sauces. MSG is not permitted for use in children's
foods in Australia, though it has been classed as a GRAS (generally
recognised as safe) substance in the US. Some people may be sensitive
to MSG, symptoms include nausea, headache, dizziness, palpitations
and weakness: called 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome'. Sensitivity is
thought related to dyspepsia or reflux. MSG occurs naturally in some
foods, especially yeast, mushrooms, tomatoes, cheeses and vegetable
extracts. Because of this, some processed foods may be high in MSG
without having the relevant additive number, look for terms such as
hydrolised vegetable protein (which is 10-30% msg), hydrolised plant
protien, natural flavour, flavouring, or Kombu extract. Often used
in stock cubes, condiments, canned soups, processed and cured meats.
(Additive 621) 1, 13, 44, 47
Musk - extracted
from the genital of musk deer, must rats, civet and beavers by a cruel
and painful process. Used in perfumery, as a flavouring. Musk can
be replaced with plant based labdanum oil. 14
- is a sythetic product, containing toluene (a known carcinogen) although
it is on the USFDA's GRAS list. It is used to simulate blackberry
flavour in foods; as a fixative in fragrances, detrifices and deodorants.
Musk ambrette can cause contact dermatitis. 2, 39, 47
- Isopropyl myristate. Myristyl. Etc. In most animal and vegetable
fats. In Butter acids. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics, food flavorings.