- Food Addtives - P
Packaging - see active packaging, plastic contamination, dioxins
Paints - derived primarily from petrochemicals, most paints are toxic in production, use and disposal. PCP (Pentachlorphenol) was once a fungicide used in many paints, banned in 1984 due to its links with cancer. Paint strippers are often made from chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are toxic at all levels and give off fumes in use. During the 19th and early 20th Centuries Lead was added to paint to increase its durability. Lead is know to reduce intelligence, attention, and hearing, irreversibly. It continues to be a problem in old buildings where children eat peeling paint, or renovators inhale the dust created by sanding it. Lack of action on the part of authorities in the light of such knowledge has been described as 'environmental racism' in the US where the majority of poisoned children are black, hispanic, and/or poor. Lead was banned in paints in 1982. 17, 12, 57
- Paints are still made today containing acrylonitrile and chromates (suspected carcinogens), glycol ether as a solvent (causes aneamia and infertility), mercury as a fungicide, and formaldelhyde (a carcinogen that may 'outgas' for up to 5 years after application).
- Citric acid has proved a good alternative in paints, thinners and cleaning products for brushes. On the internet: EZicare make a range of artist quality products using citric acid. Bio Products Australia also produce a range of clean-up, solvents, and paints based on wood resins, plant oils, earth pigments and citrus. Some of their paints do contain casein (milk protein).
Paintbrushes - bristle (pig's hair), sable (animal). Artist quality brushes made of Taklon, a synthetic fibre, are available, thought they may be more expensive. 2, 14
Palmitic acid - contrary to the name, not always derived from palm oil, Palmitic acid is often mixed with stearates. It is the major saturated fat found in meat, 40% of the fat of palm oil. Used in hair products and shaving preparations. 3, 14
Panthenol - also called Dexpanthenol, Provitamin B-5, Vitamin B-complex factor. Panthenol can be derived from plants, animals or synthetically produced. Used in shampoos, emollients and foods. 14, 47
Clear-felling in East Gippsland.
Paper - "It takes some 2.7 kg of wood, 1.30g of calcium carbonate, 85g of sulphur, 40g of chlorine & 300 litres of water to make 1 kg of conventional paper." (Real World Resources Guide) 55.
- All of Australia's domestically produced office paper is made by the Australian multi-national company Amcor ( 35%). Photocopy paper is made at the Maryvale paper mill situated near Morwell and Traralgon in Victoria, and the Wesley Vale and Burnie paper mills in northern Tasmania.
- Reflex and Copyright copy paper, Amcor's most popular brands of photocopy paper, are made from 100% virgin eucalypt fibre and are chlorine bleached, Photocopy paper is the second fastest growing sector of the Australian paper industry (behind Disposable Nappies) with demand for photopcopy paper growing at 5% per year. Friends of the Earth's recommendation is to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle paper. Canon Australia Pty. Ltd. market an A4 imported Austrian paper, Canon 100 or Cyclus. 55, 57
- Kleenex takes tonnes of Wood chips per year from forests in the Otways in South Australia to be made into their paper based products. 80
Parabens - (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-) synthetic agent used as a preservative to prevent mould growth. Used in drugs including Narcan, Xylocaine and topical creams; most often in cosmetics, especially those labelled 'hypoallergenic'. In foods including alcohol, bakery goods, cheese, oils, frozen dairy, gelatine, preserves, processed fruit and vegetable products, cordials and soft drinks, sugar substitutes and sauces. 47
Parrafin - petroleum based wax
Parsley - a green herb containing large amounts of vitamins A, C and B1, as well as iron. It has diuretic properties, and may help flush out toxins in the body.
PCB's - Dioxins and PCBs are environmental contaminants which find their way in very low concentrations into many food sources. They are particularly found in fatty foods like meat and milk. They are now banned worldwide, but are very persistent and will remain in the environment for many years.
" in 1929 the Monsanto Corporation started selling PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). PCBs are oily liquids that are very stable, even when they get hot, and they don't conduct electricity but they do conduct heat. Therefore, they make good insulators in electrical transformers and capacitors. They have also been used as hydraulic fluid, and in metal finishing. They are found in electrical systems and other components of automobiles. For a time, carbonless carbon paper was made with PCBs.
- Then scientists in the 1970s studying damage to wildlife from DDT realized that there was something else causing the same problems as DDT, and soon they identified PCBs as the culprit. It turns out that PCBs interfere with birds' reproductive systems just the way DDT does--they cause egg shells to become thin, so the eggs get crushed when the mother sits on them, and they never hatch." 82
- PCBs are estrogenic in their effect on humans and animals (see also Estrogenic effect of chemicals)
- "Other evidence about hazards from PCBs came to light and in 1976 the US Congress banned PCB production Nevertheless, Monsanto had already sold a lot of PCBs, there are 1.2 million tons (2.4 billion pounds) of PCBs loose somewhere in the world. Sixty-five percent of them are still in use in electrical equipment that will be getting old and ready for replacement during the '90s, or are in landfills. Twenty percent have already reached the oceans. Eleven percent are in terrestrial soils and sediments; 4% have been incinerated or otherwise degraded.
- PCBs accumulate in fatty tissues of living things (birds, fish, people, etc.) and they readily pass through the walls of cells. PCBs can cause cancer and they can promote cancer (that is, other chemicals when combined with PCBs develop the ability to cause cancer). PCBs also cause birth defects in humans and animals. PCBs damage the human immune system (and probably the immune systems of other creatures as well). PCBs also cause hypertension (high blood pressure) and they cause strokes in humans. Women who ate fish from the Great lakes mildly polluted with PCBs (at or below legal limits) bore children with small heads and who suffer from significant learning and behavioral defects.
- Because PCBs can become airborne when they are released into the environment, they have spread everywhere on earth. Recent studies in sparsely populated areas of Canada have revealed that rainfall now carries 17 parts per trillion (ppt) of PCBs. As a matter of law, the Ontario government allows only 1 ppt of PCBs to be discharged into the environment, but it has been difficult to get a court injunction against rainfall.
- At the current rate of increase, by the year 2005 (16 years from now) the average polar bear will have 50 parts per million (ppm) PCBs in their fatty tissue (adipose tissue) and then polar bears will meet the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) criteria for being classified as a hazardous waste. Some species of cetaceans (the whale family) already far exceed polar bears in PCB concentrations. Killers whales from the deep ocean have 410 ppm PCBs in their blubber, and blue-white dolphins off the coast of Europe have 833 ppm. Thus these creatures must definitely now be classified as hazardous wastes by EPA criteria. in the food chain, the concentration of Animals at the top of an oceanic food chain (like whales) will have a concentration of PCBs in their bodies 10 million times greater than the concentration in plankton at the bottom of the chain. (This is called biomagnification or bioconcentration, and it is the reason why dilution is no solution to pollution.)
- The next-to-last chapter in our unfolding story is that marine mammals (seals, porpoises, whales, etc.) have a genetic predisposition to reproductive failure caused by PCBs. This is simply bad luck. PCBs happen to act like hormones in marine mammals, interfering with their ability to reproduce. Joseph Cummins, Associate Professor of Genetics at University of Western Ontario, writing in the journal, THE ECOLOGIST, says that if even as little as 15% more of the world's stock of PCBs gets into the oceans, "the extinction of marine mammals would be inevitable." He says, "The consequence of failing to control PCB releases to the oceans will be the extinction of marine mammals and the chemical fouling of the ocean fisheries, rendering them unsuitable for use by humans." Dr. Cummins believes that the "developed" world can manage its PCB stocks sensibly. (We note that he does not offer a basis for this belief.) However, he is concerned that the developing world hasn't the financial resources to control the PCBs now in use in its domain. He therefore suggests that Monsanto should purchase back all its PCBs from wherever they are located in the developing world, to avoid PCB-induced calamity for all the world's oceans in the coming decades.
- For its part, Monsanto makes no apology for its behavior. It continues to operate very profitably, introducing new chemicals into use at every opportunity." - Rachel Environment and Health Weekly 82
See also Pesticides, Roundup, Gene Technology, Milk
Permaculture - a form of agriculture combining elements of building, animal husbandry, multi-cropping of perennial food producing plants, forestry, biology, energy use and technology to produce a sustainable system that has positive effects for the environment. It considers all elements of human interaction with the economy and the land in such a way as to represent a "whole human system". Permaculture is ideal for home or farm, ultimately land saving, labour saving, energy saving and economical while being in harmony with nature.
"... the permaculture designer gradually discerns optimal methods for integrating water catchment, human shelter, and energy systems with tree crops, edible and useful perennials, self-seeding annuals, domestic and wild animals, and aquaculture. Permaculture turns constraints into resources...The excess or waste products from plants and from animal and human activities are used as inputs to benefit other elements in the system. Plantings are arranged in patterns that catch water and sun and block the wind...The Ethical basis of Permaculture rests upon care for the earth - maintaining a system in which all life forms can thrive. This includes human access to resources and provisions but not the accumulation of wealth, power, or land beyond their needs..." 30
People - The current number of people in the world is about 6 Billion. This is expected to double to around 12 billion by 2050, if not checked. It is now the task of governments to formulate strategies to stem the potential crisis. Paul Harrison in his article "Not Just a Numbers Game"98 suggests four key components to slow population growth and hence reduce our impact on the environment and the possibility of crisis.
- Increasing the availability of Family Planning: In the past aid programs to poor nations have been made on the condition that a large proportion of money goes into Family Planning Programmes. Rather than support this kind of Imperialism, Harrison proposes Family Planning (with access to free abortions, contraceptives and counseling) as a means of empowering women to take control of their lives.
- Education Opportunities for Women: "Women with an education get married later, use contraceptives more and have fewer children"98 Nikki van der Gaag agrees when she advocates "women's health choices rather than population control...giving women security is a better way of controlling population than any number of forced sterilizations."99 Indeed a study by UNICEF seems to support this when they observed that when women were not traumatised by the death of an infant, they were less likely to want large families.100 Hence Harrison sees the importance of-
- Better Mother/Child Health Services: women are more likely to want larger families if they are uncertain of the survival of their children because of high rates of infant mortality.
- Equal Pay, Power and Rights to Ownership for Women: The importance of empowering women to be able to make their own decisions about what happens to them, their bodies, their homes and their property, cannot be overstated. Where women are more-or-less in charge of what happens to them they are more likely to play an active part in planning their sex lives, marriages and families.
- In addition to this, governments need to become responsible about their promises of economic growth at any cost. The history of the rise of the More Developed Countries is littered with abuses of the rights of individuals and profligate use of resources. Industrialisation brings with it a high environmental cost. If big companies are permitted to come to poorer nations in order to pursue exploitative work practices and cause pollution on a scale that they would not be permitted to do in MDCs, then perhaps the jobs they provide may be at too great a price.98, 99, 100
Pepsin - derived from pig's stomachs, used in cheese making, vitamins. see Rennet 3
Peru Balsam - also called Tolu Balsam. Derived from the resin of Myroxylon Balsamum, used in cola drinks, sweet pastries, juice, marmalade spices ( cinnamon, cloves, vanilla, curry). Also in cosmetics as a film former, conditioner or perfume, especially in products labelled 'unscented'. Common cause of cosmetic or perfume contact dermatitis, is regarded as a 'marker' of perfume sensitivity. 3, 47
Pesticides - Pesticides are the most widespread and insidious form of poisoning on earth. Traces of pesticides were found in the bodies of wildlife in the Antarctic were none had ever been used. They are detectable in every body of water, in the soil and all that grows in it, in the air and dust of our homes. An American study reported that 82% of adults have traces of chloropyrifos (an organochlorine) in their urine. 27
- Organophosphates are recognised as the most dangerous risk of 'quick poisoning': as little as a teaspoon of Parathion (used on fruit trees) spilt undiluted on the skin can cause death. Organophosphates are frequently used by farmers for quick control of insects, fungus and weeds. 27
- The chlorine in organochlorine pesticides causes them to persist in the environment, effecting a 'slow' poisoning to the exposed. They are often used where the effect is meant to be long term as for termites. Dieldrin and chlordane, now restricted to termite use, were once popular in household pest control. Today diazinon, dichlorvos and chloropyrifos are commonly used. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are known to accumulate in human fatty tissue. 23, 27
- We can be exposed to pesticides in many ways: they are readily absorbed through the skin, eyeballs and scalp; breathed in during spraying; or consumed as residue on and in foods. One study found that tinned foods contained less pesticide residue than fresh, and that broccoli, parsley, sweet potato and squash were moderately contaminated, recommending purchasing only organically grown of these vegetables. Rice had little contamination, cereals grains were moderate. 23
- The legacy of acute exposure to pesticides is often lifelong chemical sensitivity thereafter. Beside this, all pesticides have been shown to cause damage to the nervous system, immune system, genetic damage, birth defects and cancer. The anecdotal evidence pointing to poisoning is overwhelming, however most scientific research on the safety of pesticides is carried out by the companies who make them who release their results only to government agencies under strict secrecy. Because of this, the issue of bio-accumulation, or 'slow-poisoning' is denied existence. Governments are irresponsible in their denial of the harmful effects of pesticides, departments will always assure us that levels in our food too low to be toxic. However, the US Environmental Protection Agency has advised pregnant women in particular to avoid exposure to any pesticides 17, 23, 27, 31, 68
- Because escaping pesticides is an impossible task, we must boycott their use and support those using organic methods of pest control by purchasing their products.
For alternatives to pesticides in the home garden, see Gardening. See also, estrogenic effects of chemicals
Petrolatum - also called yellow petroleum jelly, petroleum jelly, vaseline officineale. Derived from steam or vacuum distillation of petroleum. My contain aromatic hydrocarbons (see separate entry) known carcinogens. There are four types of petrolatum: natural (distilled from petroleum), artificial (created from natural solid hydrocarbons, such as paraffin wax and mineral oil), gatsch (derived from the by-products of lubricating oil and mixed with mineral oil), and synthetic petrolatum (made by ethylene polymerization). It is used in foods, cosmetics as a hair conditioner, and drugs as a skin protectant and ointment base. It is flammable, and may cause acne, it is reckoned to me low-allergenic.47
Petrol Consumption - Australia has the third highest per capita consumption of petroleum in the world. This may in part be explained by the expanses of land not accessed by other forms of freight transport, and the dissipated nature of Australian cities. Yet our cities are spread out as a result of widespread car use for personal use.
- Oil consumption by cars creates pollution that harms humans and the natural environment: Smog particles contribute to respiratory illness, especially the consumption of lead enriched fuels which is a known mutagen and teratogen, and contributes to retarded intellectual development of children. Smog causes acid rain which can kill off plant life and consequently causes fauna deaths. Fumes and noise can render some areas unpleasant, indeed dangerous, for pedestrians and animals alike. Traffic congestion magnifies the pollution aspects as well as increasing stress levels of drivers which may have serious social implications: for instance the increased incidence of 'road-rage' that sometimes leads to murders. Ultimately, exhaust fumes from cars are contributing in a big way to global warming.
- Infrastructure to accommodate cars creates a vast tracts of bitumen, soil lost to roads and carparks, while using up a sizable portion of council budgets. Paving over of soil and loss of vegetation causes stormwater runoff problems, including increased pollution of creeks. With housing expansion, fertile farming land may be lost. Expanded suburbs reduce neighbourhood interaction, and preferred car use over walking rendered neighbours virtual strangers. Suburbs increase the isolation and alienation of the car-less and youth, for whom mass transit is not easily accessible in so called 'dormitory suburbs'.
- The above problems are endemic in most American and Australian cities. Newman suggests, in 1993, that Australian cities were showing trends back towards mass transit usage. In 1980 a national average of 7.2% transit usage was abysmally low compared to transit use levels of European and Asian cities at 24.8% and 64.1% respectively.101
Pets - many pet-keeping activities are cruel and unnatural.
- Some species of dogs are subjected to tail docking and ear stitching, both cruel and unnecessary, aimed only at improving the animals appearance to suit human needs. The practice of selectively breeding any species of bird, dog, cat or other animal often weakens its genetic resistance to illness in order to promote characteristics that are attractive to humans, but not advantageous to the animals.
- Birds in cages do not get to interact with group, or to use their wings. Budgerigars and cockatoos are flocking birds, often living in groups of hundreds of individuals so such isolation is contrary to all their natural instincts.
- None the less, it is possible to love and care for an animal in a way that enriches the lives of both the animal and the human involved. It is possible to raise a meat-eating animal such as a cat or dog on a vegetarian diet and thus reduce the overall amount of animal suffering and death in the world by not supporting the exploitative industries of fishing and meat-farming. The UK Vegetarian Society:"Scientific studies have described the "all meat disease syndrome" in which animals fed meat alone (without the addition of vitamins and minerals) develop soft bones, general poor condition and sometimes die. The condition is attributed to lack of adequate calcium, iodine and vitamins A and B1, and to a poor calcium to phosphorus ratio. Meat is particularly deficient in calcium. The natural diet is far more varied. Although it is possible to keep dogs on a vegetarian diet satisfactorily, cats are more specialised and you are advised to consider carefully before changing your cat to a vegetarian diet.
- Cats fed on vegetarian diets are likely to look elsewhere for their preferred meat diet, and many cats will hunt and kill small rodents and birds. Cats require certain nutrients from meat that cannot be obtained in sufficient amounts from plant foods. These include taurine, arachidonic acid, vitamin A, and vitamin B12."
Polyurethane - foam rubber in mattresses, pillows, shoes, also in composite plastics such as those used to make toys and building materials. Extensively used in coatings, most commonly in floor varnish. 3, 47
- The practice of spaying pets is a beneficial one in terms of overall suffering of neglected and dumped offspring of unspayed animals. It has been estimated that 3000-5000 puppies an kittens are born every hour in the US alone! Many will die abandoned, starved, abused or ill, many more that will find loving homes, the presence of the RSPCA is testimony to that.
- See the UK Vegetarian Society for more information.
- in Western Australia, also contact The Cat Sterilisation Society
Phenol - a member of the group of compounds called 'aromatic hydrocarbons', phenol is derived from petroleum or coal tar. Phenol and Cresol are the primary ingredients in disinfectants and both are toxic, and known to damage the central nervous system. Phenol is also used to make resins that bind plywood and chipboard, some pharmaceuticals and in some pesticides. It is also used as an antimicrobial preservative in medications and cosmetics such as mouthwash and skin creams. 3, 17, 37
Phenylalanine - an essential amino acid, deficiency of which can result in brain damage. Added to artificial sweeteners, present in all protein foods. 1, 3
Phenylmercuric salts - despite the fact that Mercury is toxic to humans, it continues to be used in drugs (such as eye preparations, vaginal products and nasal drops), and cosmetics (eye shadow, mascara, eyeliner and makeup removers) as a preservative. The US FDA banned its use in vaginal drugs based on animal tests. See also Mercury. 47
Photographic Film - All photographic films are made of cellulose film coated with gelatine which has been impregnated with light-sensitive chemicals - although much research is going into developing a synthetic base for the photosensitive chemicals. Visit
Phytoestrogens - substance having a similar action as estrogen, a female hormone. Found naturally occurring in soy beans and products, chick peas, lentils. Phytoestrogens are thought to help prevent cancer, osteoporosis and heart attacks. see also Soy products.
Pigs - Pigs are usually intensively farmed indoors, spending their entire lives in pens barely big enough to turn around in. Bearing sows are often chained down in small pens so that they cannot crush their young. Pigs are given anti-biotics and hormones to prevent disease and promote unnatural growth. Pig farming commonly pollutes the surrounding area, runoff causing nitrate problems in waterways, resulting in algae bloom and fish deaths. 38, 77, 78 See also Factory farming.
- "The Environmental lobby group Eco-Consumer says Australian consumers are now eating hormone-treated pork without knowing or being aware of the consequences. Eco-Consumer coordinator Dick Copeman says the health effects of eating hormone fed pork are not known. He says the hormone has only been approved in Australia and so Australian consumers are now guinea pigs for the rest of the world. Mr Copeman says what is known is that growth hormones can cause pigs to suffer painful bone and joint problems and also decreases the fat content and flavour of the pork." - Courier Mail, October 1997 see also, Meat, Gene Technology 77
Plastics - plastics are based on petrochemicals and are not fully biodegradable. Many emit toxic gases in degradation or burning. Plastic is become widely recycled. PVC is the most toxic (see separate entry) Plastic codes on the base of product will help you identify them: 1=PET polyester E/G, 2=HDPE high density polyyethylene, 3=PVC polyvinyl chloride and vinyl, 4=LDPE low density polyethylene, 5=PP polypropylene, 6=PS polystyrene. 2, 17, 34
Plastic contamination - CSIRO: "The Australian Food Standards Code...set maximum migration levels for three specific monomers (basic plastic compounds)...vinyl chloride, acrylonitrite and vinyllidene chloride. They are singled out because of their known potential toxicity". The risk of food contamination from plastics increases with heating, so it is advised that only microwavable plastics be used. Styrene and inks used to colour plastic have also been known to taint flavour and odour of food packaged in them. 11, 17, 47
- "Toys made with PVC (polyvinyl chloride) contain hazardous chemicals which can be ingested by children when the toys are sucked or chewed." (Greenpeace Dec 1997)
Polyesters - used in fibreglass, cars, synthetic panelling, fabrics, plastic containers. Polyester products contain styrene (see entry below)
Polyethelene - non-toxic, recyclable alternative to PVC
Polyethoxylated Castor Oil - also called PEG 40, PEG 60, Polyoxyl 35, Polyoxy 40, Polyethoxylated vegetable oil, Glycerol polyethyleneglycol riciinoleate, amongst other things. Used as an emulsifier and solubilizer in pharmacueticals, fat soluble vitamins; and as a perfume in cosmetics. 47
Polyethylene Glycol - PEG, Carbowax, Macrogol. PEG 100-700 are liquids, PEG 1000-10,000 are solids. Used in soft gelatin capsule, oral liquids and other medications as solvents. The solid forms are used in ointment bases, tablet binders and lubricants. They are also found in cosmetics as solvents and humectants for bath oils, fragrances and hair products, skin products and eyeliner, mascara and foundations. Known to cause renal failure if used on burns patients, otherwise, sensitivity is not common. 47, 48
Polysorbates - emulsifiers derived from fatty acids of animal origin. sometimes called polyethelene 20 (40, 60, 80) sorbitan , sorlate or tween. Used in foods as an emulsifier, synthetic flavouring, surfactant, opacifier, and dough conditioner. In drugs and cosmetics as an emulsifier (shampoos, fragrance powders, skin products, eye makeup, bath products), the most widely used in cosmetics is Polysorbate 20. My become an indirect food additive via adhesives, emulsifiers and surfactants. The deaths of 40 infants in the early eighties resulted when they were given a vitamin E product containing polysorbates 20 and 80 in ten times the usual amount accepted as safe. 47, 48
Polystyrene - commonly used in disposable food containers and insulation, in adhesives, foams, coating and some plastics. Releases benzene and styrene when it is burnt, the former a carcinogen, the latter, a systemic toxin. Polystyrene also degrades in sunlight, releasing toxic gasses. 34
Polyvinylchloride PVC - used in water-based emulsion paints, plastic pipe, plastic wrap and vinyl coated fabrics. It is toxic when burned, emitting vinyl chloride, HCl, dioxins, phosgene and furans, all of which have been linked to cancer or systemic poisoning. Polyethylene is a safer substitute. see alo Dioxins. 12, 17, 34
- "Should babies be chewing on PVC toys? No. They are toxic chemicals. They are easily absorbed. We know they show up in children's bloodstream." ( Dr. Michael McCally, Director of Community Medicine, Mt. Sinai, USA) 34
- Greenpeace:" Chemicals are added to PVC to make it soft and flexible. Laboratory studies show that some of these chemicals are linked to cancer and kidney damage and may interfere with the reproductive system and development. In addition, recent testing by the governments of Denmark and the Netherlands concludes that children can ingest hazardous chemicals from PVC toys during normal use -sometimes at unacceptable levels!
- Some PVC toys have already been taken off the market . The Dutch and Danish governments are urging retailers not to sell soft PVC toys. PVC toys also have been taken off the shelves in Sweden, Spain, Italy, Argentina and Greece." 34
Preservatives - inhibit the growth of mould and bacteria in processed foods
Pristane - shark oil and whale ambergris. Used as a lubricant and anti-corrosive, also in cosmetics. 3, 14
Propolis - A resinous adhesive substance collected from various plants by bees and used in the construction of their hives. In toothpastes, shampoos, lozenges 3, 75
Propylene Glycol - petroleum product used as a humectant, plasticizer, solvent with preservative properties. In foods such as baked goods, sweets, soft drinks, salad dressings and cakemixes, snack foods and frozen cakes. Its glycerin like taste has made it popular for children's medications and other elixirs, and it is used in many topical creams and ointments. It is also used in cosmetics, hair products and deodorants. Propylene Glycol has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression, and cosmetic or pharmacuetical contact dermatitis. 47, 48
Propyl Gallate - used as an anti-oxidant to prevent rancidity in oils, margarine, butter, meat products, snack foods, baked goods, nuts, grain products, gum and sweets, frozen dairy, and beverages. Also commonly used in lipsticks, balms and skin lotions. May cause contact dermatitis. 47, 48
Proteins - generic term often found in cosmetics and hair products which usually refers to elastin, keratin or reticulin 3, 14
Provitamins - A (see 160 Carotene), B-5 derived from animal proteins (see Panthenol), D-2 (see Vitamins)