Food Additives - V

Vaccinations - vaccines are often prepared using the blood of animals or people who have contracted the disease in question and built up an immunity to it.

"Health authorities credit vaccines for disease declines, and assure us of their safety and effectiveness. Yet these seemingly rock-solid assumptions are directly contradicted by government statistics, medical studies, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports, and reputable research scientists from around the world.
In fact, infectious diseases declined steadily for decades prior to vaccinations, U.S. doctors report thousands of serious vaccine reactions each year including hundreds of deaths and permanent disabilities, fully vaccinated populations have experienced epidemics, and researchers attribute dozens of chronic immunological and neurological conditions to mass immunization programs."
In the December 1994 Medical Post, Canadian author of the best-seller Medical Mafia, Guylaine Lanctot, M.D. stated, "The medical authorities keep lying. Vaccination has been a disaster on the immune system. It actually causes a lot of illnesses. We are actually changing our genetic code through vaccination...10 years from now we will know that the biggest crime against humanity was vaccines." After an extensive study of the medical literature on vaccination, Dr. Viera Scheibner concluded that "there is no evidence whatsoever of the ability of vaccines to prevent any diseases. To the contrary, there is a great wealth of evidence that they cause serious side effects." - Alan Phillips, 85
It is up to each parent to decide whether their children should be vaccinated though governments apply pressure and sometimes monetary incentive to ensure that vaccination continues. There are also vested interests behind the development of new and unneeded vaccines.

Vegetarianism - a diet that includes no meat (including fish and chicken!) or other slaughterhouse by-products (like gelatine, rennet), but may include milk and/or free range eggs; and often includes the avoidance of animal products in all other forms: such as leather, hair, fur, glue, feathers etc, used for non-food purposes. A person on a Vegan diet avoids all forms of animal products, in food or otherwise.

The term 'vegetarian' was coined in the 1800's, but abstinence from meat has a long history dating back thousands of years to ancient Egyptian priests, Pythagoras and Budda. As Colin Spencer notes in the foreword to his book The Heretic's Feast" 1993, the voluntary aspect of abstaining from certain foods is linked to the availability of food in general and "can only flourish in a well-fed community, where people have enough leisure to reflect on the meaning of existence" 76
Spencer observes that it is not only recently that vegetarians have become the cause of
"surprisingly virulent anger in others...meat has become a symbol combining various meanings to do with power, orthodoxy and dominance...often the vegetarian creed has been one of dissidence, comprising rebels and outsiders...who find the society they live in to lack moral worth...Vegetarians (have in the past) become criminalised and were considered blasphemers and heretics"
Many modern proponents of secular vegetarianism and veganism base their beliefs on utilitarianism, a theory of ethics, that takes the greatest good to the greatest number of beings to be the most valid reason for an action. This is certainly the view of Peter Singer, philosopher and author of the seminal work "Animal Liberation" 1975. In the book, he claims that we cannot exclude animals from our field of concern, for their lives have value just as ours do for we are also animals. He goes further to say that by becoming a vegetarian we can reduce animal suffering and human starvation at the same time. For it is suffering, rather than animal deaths, that is within our power to lessen: "we must ask ourselves, not: is it ever right to eat meat? but: is it right to eat this meat?" p165, as we can never know that the animal did not suffer, and the practicalities of modern factory farming almost guarantee that the animal will suffer. 28
The biggest source of misunderstanding between meat-eaters and vegetarians seems to be the fact that many vegetarians consider their decision to be a matter of ethics that informs their existence, while many meat-eaters see it as a mere lifestyle choice and as such, arbitrary and capricious. see also factory farming, meat.
From the American Dietetic Association Position Paper on Vegetarianism:
Mortality from coronary artery disease is lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians... One study demonstrated reversal of even severe coronary artery disease without the use of lipid lowering drugs by using a combination of a vegetarian diet deriving less than 10% of its energy from fat, smoking cessation, stress management, and moderate exercise...Vegetarians have lower rates of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus than do non-vegetarians; lessening these risk factors may also decrease the risk of cardiovascular and coronary artery disease in the vegetarian population. Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians have lower rates of mortality from colon cancer than the general population. This may be attributable to dietary differences that include increased fiber intake; decreased intake of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and caffeine; increased intake of fruits and vegetables; and, in lacto-vegetarians, increased intakes of calcium. The dietary differences, especially in vegans, may produce physiologic changes that may inhibit the causal chain for colon cancer. Reduced consumption of meat and animal protein has also been associated with decreased colon cancer in some, but not all, studies of omnivores. Lung cancer rates are lower in vegetarians, chiefly because they usually do not smoke, but possibly also because of diet. Research suggests that vegetarians are also at decreased risk for breast cancer. Obesity, a major public health problem in the United States, exacerbates or complicates many diseases. Vegetarians, especially vegans, often have weights that are closer to desirable weights than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians may be at lower risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes because they are leaner than non-vegetarian. Also, vegetarians' high intake of complex carbohydrates, which are often relatively high in fiber content, improves carbohydrate metabolism and may lower basal blood glucose levels. 106
For more reading on the philosophy of vegetarianism and vegansim see links page

Veterinarian Science - students wanting to study vet science are often confronted with the 'necessity' of dissecting animals for no other reason than to observe their physical make-up, or to learn surgical techniques. Some alternative research aids include:

Plastination and Silyophilization - specimens, after formalin fixation, are dehydrated and then infiltrated with silicone; results in translucent, durable preserved specimen which is resistant to compressive forces which can last indefinitely for use in anatomy labs.
Veterinary neuroanatomy - Full colour digital images are presented of whole brain and brainstem of sheep, and stained histological transverse sections of the canine brain; neural pathways are visualised in animated tutorial programs which are interactive
Anesthesia and Analgesia of Laboratory Animals - Interactive program teaches aspects of injectable and inhalation anaesthesia and analgesia in rats, mice and guinea pigs
Biochemical Simulations - Software simulation of various biochemical exercises
Clinical Cases - such as effect of neurectomies in the horse and Starvation Tutorial (Covers the biochemical changes occurring in humans from their last meal to 40 days) without food, available on VHS format. AVAR has this to say about the video taping of unconscionable acts upon animals:
"an existing recording of an objectionable situation (can) be used instead of repeating it in class. For example, the phenomenon of anaphylactic shock has been documented on film by staging it in guinea pigs. Whereas the original act itself may be considered unconscionable by many, some may consider it appropriate to use the film. It would be necessary, however, to explain to the students that the original event is not being condoned and that we simply are taking advantage of it to maximise the educational benefit. It also would mean that, if such a film were lost, the original event should not be restaged" 56
Clinical Skills - such as Koken Rat (Students can learn and practice venipuncture and intra-gastric tubing), Life/form(r) CPR Dog (Simulator designed to teach cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs)
Pharmacology - such as Cardiolab (Simulates effects of cardiovascular drugs on anaesthetised or pithed animals), also many video aids available
Physiology - videos including Cardiopulmonary response to exercise (Demonstrated using a dog running on a treadmill), Intestinal motility in the rabbit (Shows surgical preparation to study intestinal movements in an anaesthetised rabbit; describes effects of parasympatholytic drugs on the intestinal motility), many others
Surgery - DASIE (Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercises), Sawbones(r) for dog and horse orthopaedic procedures, Sharpoint(r) PracticeRat(tm)
Toxicology - videos including: Emergency Treatment of Dogs and Cats Poisoned by Convulsing Pesticides, (Source: AVAR ) 56, 14

 AVAR also has this to say about the use of animals in a school situation:

"In most cases, a student in veterinary medical school does have the right not to be forced to violate her/his ethical or religious principles concerning the use of nonhuman animals in the classroom. The issue of student rights is complicated, however, and requires a basic understanding of the source of these rights.
The first amendment to the United States Constitution provides, in essence, that there shall be no abridgment of the right to practice religion. Many people who have a more progressive view of traditional religions understand that reverence for life is very much a part of those religions. The U.S. Supreme Court has also interpreted this guarantee to protect not only "traditional" religious beliefs, but also ethical beliefs that may not be connected with spiritual belief even when that belief is not linked to a particular "traditional" religious doctrine...
In addition, in most cases, failure by veterinary medical schools to provide an alternative to student surgery or other course requirements involving the harmful use of nonhuman animals is not related to legitimate educational concerns, but is more concerned with a desire simply to frustrate those students who are sympathetic to the animal rights movement. In such cases, other bodies of law, such as contract law and tort law, become relevant. For example, a decision not to provide an alternative because school officials do not like those sympathetic to the idea of animal rights probably violates the contractual obligation of the school not to make such decisions on anything other than a solid and supportable educational ground, and might even constitute tortious conduct by those involved in making the decision.
Finally, there is a good deal of interest on the state level in state laws that specifically and explicitly protect students from coercion to hurt, kill or use nonhuman animals in the classroom. This source of students' rights will become increasingly important in the future."56 see also Vivisection
be sure to visit The Virtual Frog

Vichyssoise - potato and leek soup usually containing chicken stock

Vitamins - many vitamin capsules are coated with gelatine or may contain milk products. " Vitamin D2 is produced by sunlight acting on bacteria, however D3 is derived from lanolin from sheeps' wool therefore only D3 which is guaranteed sourced from wool sheared from live sheep is considered acceptable" (UKVS). Vitamin D can also come from fish-liver oil
B12 is usually from an animal source. Some vegetarian B12 fortified yeasts and analogs available. Some vegetarian B12 vitamins are in a stomach base. Plant algae (spirulina) contains B12. Seek medical advice if you are concerned about your vitamin levels.75

Vivisection - the widespread practise of testing products and medicines on animals, as well as the killing and dissecting of animals for learning purposes. Alternatives to testing products on animals include the skintex and eyetex tissue culture products, as well as computer modelling. Software, audio-visual, and preserved and laminated specimens in various degrees of dissection are also available for students. The American Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights provides a detail booklet on the issue, with references for resources and the Norwegian Inventory of Audiovisuals for Animal Use Alternatives provides a mail-order service for such materials. see also, Veterinarian Science 50, 56  See also:  Testing



Ethical Consumption for People, Animals and Planet

The Food Additives from A to Z and 100 to 1520 has been copied from the original site
written from
3 years research by Kim Stewart - BA Philosophy, BSc Honours
BA Environmental Management & Policy
and President of the Animal Liberation Queensland
>>>Click here for a list of other Websites that Kim Stewart recommends.